Religion, Spirituality, or Lack Thereof


Yeah that sounds about right for Sparta.


Ah, thank you! I couldn’t remember if that was unique to them or not; I just remember that we learned that part while covering Sparta.


Question on Judaism

HIIII so I’m studying for a test but I can’t really understand / answer a question that is on my study guide… (probs cause I’m overthinking it)

“Explain what is included among the Hebrew scripture and writings including the Torah, Midrash, Mishnah, Gemara, and Talmud.”

So I have the Torah down… but I don’t understand what the Midrash and Mishnah is…

Like I googled it but it’s confusing me even more…

If anyone could help that would be great ! :slight_smile:


@absentminded_artist I summon you to help us clarify with some questions about Judaism!

Sorry, I have too much fun with the idea of “summoning” people to a discussion.


So first I question whoever made this study guide for asking the question like this since some of the things listed are literally part of other things listed. Also for asking about “Torah” and not “Tanakh.” I’m not surprised you got confused, the question it’s convoluted. So here goes my best attempt to untangle the mess.

Tanakh = Torah + Nevi’im + Ketuvim.

  • Torah (Teachings) = Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy
  • Neviʾim (Prophets) = Joshua, Judges, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi
  • Ketuvim (Writings) = Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations of Jeremiah, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, I and II Chronicles

Talmud = Mishnah + Gemara

  • Mishnah = the first compilation of rabbinic law, published around 200 CE Rabbi Judah the Patriarch in Israel.
  • Gemara = Discussions of the Mishnah.
  • Good Breakdown

Midrash = Midrash Halacha + Midrash Aggadah

  • Interpretation of the Torah.
  • Midrash Halacha = interpretation of Torah law and religious practice.
  • Midrash Aggadah = interpretation of ethics or theology from the narratives.
  • Better Explanations


Ooooo thank you so much!!!